Day hikes and backpacking trips don’t always go as planned and it pays to equip yourself with extra survival and emergency gear if you get lost or injured when hiking in a more remote area like a national park, national forest, or state park. On average, it takes 1 hour for search and rescue to arrive, for every quarter mile you travel from a trailhead. That means you may need to fend for yourself for quite a long time before help can arrive. The best defense is to carry a few extras for emergencies and leave a detailed plan of your route with a trusted friend who can call 911 to go look for you if you’re overdue.
What can go wrong on a hike?
- Your hike may take much longer than you expect and the sun may go down.
- You can get lost.
- You can run out of water.
- The weather can change unexpectedly for the worse in a life-threatening way.
- You or a member of your party can have a health emergency like a heart attack or a sprained ankle and be unable to walk out on your own power.
- You might come across someone else who needs help.
- Your car breaks down going or returning from a hike in the middle of nowhere.
While advances in satellite communications now make it possible to signal for help when you’re out of cell phone range, it’s considered bad form to call out a Search and Rescue Team, many of who are unpaid volunteers, for a rescue that could have been avoided if you’d been better prepared. Many states now charge people for rescue services if they’re not equipped with basic gear and the fines can be very costly, totaling thousands of dollars.
Here’s an annotated list of frequently carried survival gear items to help you understand what the most important items to carry are, along with explanations about their purpose and utility. I carry many of these myself because you never know what’s going to happen when you step off the beaten path.
For instance, I’ve conducted CPR on hikers who’ve collapsed on trails, rehydrated hikers who were dehydrated, patched countless cuts, scrapes, bruises, and blisters, jump-started cars, changed flat tires, been overtaken by violent thunderstorms and had water filters break days from civilization. Stuff happens, but you can prevent it from ruining a hike or a backpacking trip with a little preparation.
Emergency Communication Devices
Texting or dialing 911 on a cell phone is the most effective way to summon search and rescue assistance in locations that have cell tower access. This should be tried before contacting search and rescue services with a satellite messenger or personal locator beacon. Most states have well-defined protocols for summoning search and rescue assets that start with a call to the 911 dispatcher. Texting uses less cell phone battery power than a voice call and can often get through with weak cellphone access when a phone call can’t. If you are lost, the dispatcher can also ping your phone to get a GPS fix on your location and give that to search and rescue personnel so they can find you fast.
Satellite messengers provide two-way text messaging or email communication via a satellite communications link in areas where a cell phone or landlines are unavailable. They operate over private networks and require a monthly subscription fee, like a cell phone. When you push the SOS button on one of these devices, the dispatchers will contact search and rescue on your behalf, even if you are outside the United States, to render assistance. The best satellite messengers including the Garmin inReach Mini 2, provide two-way communications, which is very much like texting someone on a smartphone. Satellite messengers have become very popular in recent years and can also be used for non-emergency communication with friends or loved ones.
Personal Locator Beacon
A personal locator beacon will send an SOS message via satellite over a public network and can operate internationally, including on the ocean. They are less expensive than satellite messengers because they run on free public satellite links, but they are only one-way communication devices that can only signal for help. People carry a satellite messenger or a personal locator beacon like the Arc ResQLink+GPS PLB but not both.
If you need to get someone’s attention, you can blow a loud whistle for longer than you can yell without losing your voice. They’re also very handy to use when you lose sight of a hiking partner but know they’re nearby. I recommend using a Fox 40 Classic Safety Whistle. It’s much louder than the toy whistles that backpack manufacturers put on sternum straps,
In certain locales, a signal mirror like the UST Starflash Mirror or the Coghlan’s Featherweight Mirror. is useful for signaling search and rescue aircraft so they can pinpoint your location when flying overhead. For example, if you’re being chased by a lion, a signal mirror can facilitate an immediate rescue and is much faster than sending a GPS location to rescuers who still have to search for you on the ground.
Emergency Blanket/Bivy Sack
A reflective mylar emergency blanket or bivy sack is good for staying warm if you get caught after dark, the weather turns for the worse, or you’re wet and start to get cold. They only weigh a few ounces but can be a lifesaver if you need one or you come across someone who is injured and needs to stay warm until help can arrive. An emergency bivy, which is shaped like a sleeping bag, is better than an emergency blanket because it stops more wind from chilling you although you shouldn’t line on the ground with it unless you’re on a foam or other insulated pad. Some good options include the SOL Escape Light Bivy and the SOL Emergency Bivy.
A bivy sack is a minimalist emergency shelter for when you need to unexpectedly spend the night out. It is a significant step up from a mylar emergency bivy sack in terms of durability, but usually lacks heat-reflective capabilities and is more like a tent in that respect. It’s best used with a sleeping bag and a foam pad to prevent heat loss through the ground.
A tarp with cord guylines can provide a minimalist shelter at night or give you a place to shelter under during the day in heavy rain. It doesn’t have to be large, just big enough to stretch between trees. Try the REI Quarter Dome SL Tarp or the Paria Sanctuary Siltarp.
Tools and Protection
Magnetic Compass and Physical Map
Powered by the earth’s magnetism, a compass does not require a power source to use and is a good way to preserve your other battery-powered gear. Baseplate compasses like the Suunto A10 or the Silva 1-2-3 are inexpensive, reliable, and break-resistant. Be sure to carry a physical version of a map as well, and a waterproof one if it’s available.
Headlamp or Flashlight
A headlamp or flashlight is one of the 10 essentials. In addition to being a psychological comfort, a headlamp or flashlight allows you to safely move around outdoors at night without falling. A cell phone makes a pretty poor flashlight and won’t last long. Try the Black Diamond Spot Headlamp or the Petzl Actik Core Headlamp. In winter, it’s useful to carry two headlamps since it gets dark so early and the nights are so long.
Bic Lighter and Tinder
A lighter and tinder provide an easy method of starting a fire so you can get warm or signal rescuers if you get lost or in an emergency. Practice it so you know how to collect dry wood and build up a fire. Carry a Bic Mini Lighter and SOL TinderQuik, or a homemade tinder such as egg carton cells filled with wax and wood chips or vaseline-dipped cotton balls.
Backup Water Purification Method
Bring a second water filter or purification method in case your primary method breaks or fails. I carry chlorine dioxide tablets, as a backup for my water filter. One tablet makes 1 liter of water safe to drink in 15 minutes.
Match batteries to all of the vital electronic devices you carry or carry a multi-purpose power pack with different recharging adapters. I can recommend the Anker 10,000 mAh Power Bank.
It’s handy to carry a small multi-tool for basic gear repair or for applying first aid. In winter, it’s also good for repairing damaged skis, snowshoes, or microspikes. Scissors can also be helpful for applying first aid. The Leatherman Micra, Leatherman Squirt, and Swiss Army Classic all come with scissors, which is the tool I use the most often on hikes and backpacking trips.
Spray a cloud at the head of a charging bear as a deterrent. Try Counter Assault Bear Deterrent Spray. This is only required in big bear habitats.
Extra First Aid Kit Items
These items are often left out of consumer first-aid kits or are not provided in sufficient quantities to be applied more than once. In a true emergency, you’d want multiple doses, but there’s usually no need to bring the entire package.
Anti-Diarrhea Medication: Helps prevent runny stools and dehydration and increases personal comfort if you contract a stomach disorder or have eaten something that disagrees with you. Imodium tablets
Anti-Allergy Medication: Reduce allergic reactions to insect stings and other substances. Can also be used as a sleep aid. Benedryl tablets.
Aspirin: Specifically as a blood thinner to prevent a heart attack. Bayer Aspirin.
Quick Clotting Agent: Trauma aid used to stop massive bleeding. Quick Clot
Sam Splint: Lightweight split that can be bent to splint many common injuries. Sam Splint.
Irrigation Syringe: Plastic syringe useful for irrigating cuts and wounds to clean out debris and prevent infection. Best used with clean and purified water. Also useful to backflush water filters between trips. Plastic syringe.
Medical Exam Gloves: Protects caregiver against potentially infectious body fluids of a patient. Nitrile Gloves. If you’ve never taken a Wilderness First Aid Class, it’s a skill that will prove useful multiple times in your hiking career, both for self-care and care for others.
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